European Bitterling (Rhodeus amarus)
European Bitterlings are a prevalent, peaceful, active and hardy coldwater fish that you can keep in both ponds and aquariums. This species can quickly adapt when it comes to water requirements and can handle various temperatures, pH, and general hardiness.
You can keep these fish with various species, including Goldfish and coldwater natives such as Murray River Rainbows. European Bitterlings are not aggressive fish, and they will not nip the fins of other fish.
European Bitterlings have a wide laterally compressed body that displays a beautiful bluish-green iridescent sheen and long rose coloured dorsal and anal fins. The pelvic and pectoral fins are usually white. Their eyes are gold and red and relatively large, and their mouths are slightly up-turned. These fish also display a blue-green stripe along their middle, and their belly is whitish to somewhat reddish.
However, when the males are in the breeding season, they will get a bright orange shine to their bellies, and the fish's fins will change to a bright red colour.
|Scientific Name||Rhodeus amarus|
|Origins||Europe), France, Russia|
|Aquarium Level||Bottom - Middle|
|Difficulty||Beginner - Intermediate|
|Best kept as||Groups 8+|
|Lifespan||3 - 5 years|
|PH||7.0 - 7.5|
|GH||0 - 6|
|TDS||100 - 200|
|55 - 71℉|
12.8 - 21.7℃
In the home aquarium, the European Bitterling will readily accept most good quality dried foods such as granules, flakes and sinking pellets. These modern food products have been developed to provide all adequate nutrition to maintain your fish's health and dietary requirements.
Providing additional foodstuffs such as live, frozen, and freeze-dried meals such as bloodworm, daphnia, and tubifex once or twice a week will provide additional benefits to your fish's health and well-being but is not a must for this fish.
It should be noted that bloodworms should only be given as an occasional treat and should not be used as the staple diet as they are difficult for fish to digest and can potentially cause blockages.
This fish is an omnivore in the wild, meaning it will consume some vegetable matter. Although most modern fish foods take this into account and include them in their products, you can still supplement your fish's diet with blanched vegetables such as spinach, broccoli, and zucchini. Ensure you do not overfeed your fish and remove any leftovers the following day.